Thousands of towns, cities and even countries have disappeared to time. Borders have been reworked or erased and countless leaders have been disposed of. In the last one hundred years, the majority of these countries disappeared as the result of political reworkings and a changing global climate.
Once, these great nations were conquered and fell to invaders - although some of these were taken by greater countries. Over the course of a century, these nations have transformed to become something completely different than what they were when first conquered.
It's almost certain that in another one hundred years time, the world will be unrecognizable. Perhaps a few powers will hold a monopoly, resulting in far fewer distinct nations. Alternatively, there could be greater fracturing, and more variation, with lots of smaller countries breaking off from one another and fighting against each other to define borders.
As it is today, very few people will remember all of the countries on this list, and in time, they may be all but forgotten. But at one time, they were remembered as the nations they once were, by their disenfranchised citizens who were forced to change with the march of time.
10 Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire, which was also known as the Turkish Empire, lasted for centuries. It was started in the year 1300 CE and existed until 1923. During those 600 years, the Empire grew huge, claiming sections of the present Turkey, Russia, Africa and the Middle East.
It was the most powerful during the 16th and 17th centuries. During its time, the Empire controlled vast lands and was at the center of the Eastern and Western world. Following its rise, it began to have setbacks and decline until its eventual collapse.
Following WW1 however, the Empire collapsed for the final time and led to the creation of Turkey, which had declared its independence. A once mighty and often beautiful Empire, the Ottoman Empire dissolved into new lands, its 600 year reign over.
9 East Germany and West Germany
East and West Germany was the center of much strife and political controversy during the 20th century. The areas were divided into two major ideologies, however, when a place opened in the Iron Curtain, East Germans began fleeing into the West.
In 1990, the two countries became Germany and merged together, eliminating the infamous divide between them. Called German Reunification, East and West Germany united, as did Berlin.
The new, joined country was given sovereignty by the four occupying powers, which eliminated the restrictions that had been placed on the two separate nations. The two countries were divided in the first place due to the defeat of the Nazis after World War II, and thus, during the Cold War, the area was divided toward the Allies and the Soviets.
Although Tibet is still occupied, it has been altered following China's invasion in 1950. The country was first created during the 7th century, and lived in relative security for many centuries after.
In 1912, the Qing dynasty ceased to exist, and so, Tibet declared independence, though it had no recognition by China to do so. Now, however, it is called the Xizang Autonomous Region of China.
This is after the Invasion of Tibet, which caused much hardship for the peoples of the area. There are still questions as to the nature of the government and autonomy of the nation, especially after the alleged harsh treatment and torture of activists from the area.
7 Zanzibar and Tanganyika
Zanzibar and Tanganyika were once two separate, autonomous countries that merged in 1964. Tanganyika, located by the Indian Ocean and the African Great Lakes, held its independence from the United Kingdom. This only lasted a couple years however, as it and Zanzibar became Tanzania.
Zanzibar still remains as a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania, though it is part of the greater country. Tanzania is part of East Africa and is visited by thousands of tourists each year. The area has a rich history, with evidence of human population going back to 20,000 years. Though Zanzibar and Tanganyika themselves were not around for nearly that long.
As the two joined so recently, many people still remember when Zanzibar and Tanganyika were separate.
Yugoslavia was made up of six Socialist Republics, including Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Bosnia. Indeed, when it was dissolved, it became Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro and Slovenia.
It was called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 and remained as such, however, it was invaded by Axis members in 1941. Following this, in 1945, the monarchy in the country was disbanded and renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
The country actually went through a number of name changes during its time, including the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, which it was officially called when it was dissolved. Other than that, it was renamed numerous other times with each political change. In the early 1990s the country ceased to be entirely and was divided up in the aforementioned ways.
5 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
The USSR was a massive area of land that was divided into 15 new countries when it collapsed. The collapse occurred in 1991 and the new countries that were created included Russia and Ukraine. While it was present, the USSR was a Marxist-Leninist country and was had a single party.
It was around from 1922 until its fall. Mikhail Gorbachev was its last Soviet leader, and it was he who ultimately caused the nation to divide. He then attempted to reform the Union, however, it led to the rise of both separatist and nationalist groups.
In 1991, a coup was orchestrated and failed, which caused the Communist party to be banned; Gorbachev resigned, and the country split into new nations.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire was created in 1867 but did not last long. The Empire dissolved after WWI due to its defeat. The Empire included Austria, Hungary, as well as part of the Czech Republic, Italy, Poland and Romania.
However, it was considered a union between the powers in its name (Austria and Hungry). These two powers controlled things jointly and held two different monarchies, although affairs in different aspects of the state were divided. It ceased to exist in 1918, which caused many new problems for the powers in the area.
Today, nothing remains of the once mighty Empire except for the resulting countries. If the country had not been defeated in WWI, the results may have been much different.
Czechoslovakia was a large country with much power and influence. It was a sovereign state and was in existence from 1918 until 1993. When it was dissolved, it was done so peacefully, and split into two new nations: The Czech Republic and Slovakia.
However, its existence was turbulent at times. Beginning in 1939 and lasting until 1945 for instance, the country was forcibly incorporated into Nazi Germany, and as such, did not exist fully.
However, it continued to exist in terms of government. Before it separated into 2 countries, it removed its government peacefully after the Communist movement was being thwarted elsewhere. Then in 1993, it became known as the two aforementioned countries.
Many people are still unsure what to call Burma. Officially, Burma has changed its name to Myanmar, but a lot of countries do not recognize this change. Although it occurred in 1989, countries such as the United States still refer to the country as Burma.
However, this is not entirely politically correct, as evidenced by US President Barack Obama's treatment on the issue; he referred to the country as both Burma and Myanmar when he visited.
Up until 1989, everyone called the country Burma, however, following this, things got a little dicey. During this time, the Adaptation Expression Law came into fruition, which attempted to reverse English transliteration changes to global areas.
When Obama used the name Myanmar, the country's government was pleased; the UN uses Myanmar as well.
Home to rich biodiversity and stunning views, Newfoundland is one province that many like to visit. Many are shocked to discover though that Newfoundland used to be self governing and existed separately from Canada.
From 1907 until 1949, the nation was known as the Dominion of Newfoundland. Following this, it became part of Canada, which makes sense due to its geographic location. Previously to its joining Canada, Newfoundland was a British Dominion.
Today, it is a province of Canada, with few remembering its past. While it was separate from Canada, Newfoundland held its own government and laws. The region has a rich history and many enjoy to visit the province for tourism reasons.
Those who live in Newfoundland today are more keen on remembering how it existed before it joined Canada.